【勉強】久司道夫のマクロビオティック入門編〜その7〜

【勉強】久司道夫のマクロビオティック入門編〜その7〜

 

P73~116〈第3章 マクロビオティックの考え方〉

 

・陰と陽のバランスよく食べましょう(P83~89)

マクロビオティックでは食べ物を考える時に「陰陽」ということを基準にしている。

陰陽とは、古典的には古代の中国から始まった思想で、物事には全て陰と陽の性質があり、その相互作用で様々なことが起こるという考え方。

この思想は日本にも古くから影響を与えており、現代にもそれが残っている。(漢方でも陰陽というのは大原則となっている)

マクロビオティックの標準食がベースとしている日本の伝統食もその考え方に沿って成り立っている面がある。

食物を大まかに三つに分類してみます。

 

①極端に陽性の食物(上のものほど、より陽性が強い)

精製塩

鳥肉(鶏、鴨、キジなど)

獣肉(牛、豚など)

チーズ

魚介

 

②中庸の(陰陽バランスのとれた)食物(上のものほど、バランスが取れている)

全粒穀物

豆類や豆を原料とした食品

温帯性の野菜

海藻

海水からとった天然のあら塩、植物油

刺激の強くない飲み物

ナッツ類

温帯性の果物

米あめ、麦あめなどの精製していない自然甘味料

 

③極端に陰性の強い食物(上のものほど、より陰性が強い)

防腐剤、着色料などの化学物質を含んでいる食品

アルコール

砂糖などの精製した甘味料

香辛料

刺激の強い飲み物(コーヒー、紅茶など)

牛乳、クリーム、ヨーグルト、アイスクリーム

熱帯性の果物や野菜

冷凍食品、缶詰

白米などの精白した穀物

 

マクロビオティックでは、陰陽のバランスのとれた食生活がよいというのが基本の考え方。

なので極端に陰、または陽に偏った食物は避けるべきだということ。

その理由は、極端な性質を持った食物を食べてしまうと、バランスを取ることがとても難しくなるから。

中庸の食物は最初からバランスが良いので、あまり細かなことを考えなくても食事のバランスが崩れない。

全粒穀物は最もバランスがいいので、食事の基本となる。

ぜひ避けるようにとおすすめしている、肉、卵などの動物性食品は①の中でも陽性が特に強いもので、また牛乳や乳製品、砂糖は③の中でも特に陰性が強いもの。

極端な食品の中でも比較的その度合いの低い食物なら、たまに食べてもバランスが崩れる危険が小さいと言える。

①の中では魚介、③の中では精白した穀物などはたまに食べても大丈夫だということになる。

ここでもう一度、標準食のピラミッドを見てみると、ピラミッドの上へ行くほど陰陽のバランスが極端な食品になり、下へ行くほどバランスのいい食品になっているのが分かる。

つまり標準食というのは、陰陽のバランスのいい食物をより多く食べるようにすることで、食事全体のバランスを保ちやすいように構成されている。

 

 

・中庸の食物の中の陰陽について(P89~96)

さらに上の段階のバランスを取りたいと思う方へ。

中庸の食物の中でも、少し陽性のもの、少し陰性のものを分類すると…

 

少し陽性の野菜

  ごぼう、人参、蓮根、キャベツ、かぼちゃ

少し陰性の野菜

  緑の菜っ葉類、ネギ、筍、きのこ、もやし

 

これらを見分ける大まかな目安としては、陽性ぎみの野菜は秋冬にできるものが多く、味ではかぼちゃやキャベツなどのように少し甘味があったり、苦味があったりする。

下の方にできるものが多いのも特徴で、これは下降のエネルギーという陽の性質があるからで、根菜類が多いのはそのせい。

反対に陰性ぎみの野菜は春夏にできるものが多くなり、味としては辛味があったり酸味があったりする。

上の方でできているものが多く、陰の性質というのは上昇のエネルギーなのでそうなる。

 

少し陽性の食物

  豆類、ひじき、アラメ、昆布

少し陽性の食物

  わかめ、海苔

 

陽性の性質として、中心に縮んで硬くなろうとするものがあり、野菜の中でもかぼちゃやキャベツなどの陽のものは硬かったように、豆類もやはり少し陽性の食物。

これに対し、陰性の場合は外へ広がろうという性質があり、柔らかいものが多い。

海藻で見てみても、ひじきや昆布などの硬いものは少し陽性、わかめや海苔のように柔らかいものは陰性となる。

 

陽の穀物

  米、そば、あわ

陰の穀物

  大麦、トウモロコシ

 

穀物については、大体が理想的な中庸だが、その中にも陰と陽の僅かな性質がある。

秋に収穫する、硬い粒の米が陽。

夏に収穫する、上へと伸びる上昇の性質が強いトウモロコシは陰。

※食物の陰陽は、調理や加工の仕方で変わってくるものなので、こうした分類や目安にあまり縛られないで、堅苦しく考えないように。

 例えば、水を加えていくと陰の性質が増し、乾燥させて水を抜くと陽の性質が増す。

 料理の際に砂糖を加えると陰の性質が増し、塩を加えると陽の性質が強くなる。

 長時間加熱すると陽が強くなる。しかし同じ加熱でも、強い火で一気に調理すると上昇のエネルギーが出てくるので陰の性質も加わってくる。

 

物には陰だけ、陽だけの性質を持ったものはなく、必ず両方の性質を持っているもの。なので様々な状況の変化により、陰陽の性質が変わっていくということ。

マクロビオティックの標準食は、体内の陰陽のバランスを整え、人が持っている本来の力を引き出してくれる。よって、だんだんと自然治癒力が高まって健康になっていく。

ただ少し注意しておきたいのは、この標準食が病気ではない人を前提にしているということ。

病気の人の場合、その人の体質や病気の性質により、個別のメニューを立てるのが望ましい。(病気の人の食事については、また別の機会に)

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